Testing and Evaluation Methods for Performance Scoring of Structural Knowledge

M. Takeya, M. Kobayashi, N. Yonezawa, and K. Nagaoka (Japan)


Issues in education, testing and evaluation, methodology, structural knowledge, cognitive map, and formative evaluation


The traditional paper test is able to measure mainly individual student’s understanding level of individual bits of knowledge. However, it is difficult to measure the internal connections among bits of knowledge. First, this paper presents two new testing methods, called cognitive mapping tests for formative evaluation. One is a test by cognitive maps based on the prerequisite relations, and the other is a test by cognitive maps based on casual relationship. The teacher may draw the map according to the contents to be taught, and then teach the subject based on the map. After lecturing the subject, the teacher may give a cognitive mapping test with elements which are equal to those of the teacher’s cognitive map. The teacher compares individual students’ maps with the teacher’s, and evaluates the structural cognitive levels of individual students. Secondly, two kinds of measurement methods for structural knowledge are shown, respectively. Thirdly, this paper discusses two scoring methods. One is a scoring method based on qualitative degree of relations, and the other is based on qualitative degree of sequencing. Lastly, the validity is discussed.

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