Ismail Ababneh, Wail Mardini, and Asmahan Abu al-Hassan


Route discovery, broadcasting, ad hoc networks, velocity-based


An important communication operation in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is broadcasting. In particular, MANET-reactive routing protocols typically use broadcasting in their route discovery process. In its simplest form, broadcasting uses flooding, which can cause severe packet duplication and contention. A scheme based on the velocity of nodes (VON) has been proposed in the literature to reduce route breakages by choosing stable routes (i.e. routes through low-speed nodes). However, VON uses a fixed velocity threshold regardless of network status. A node can participate in routes only if its speed does not exceed the threshold value, including when the node’s participation is necessary to finding a route to the destination. In this paper, we propose adjusting the threshold value depending on node neighbourhood information. In our scheme, the adaptive velocity of nodes (AVON) scheme, a node decides whether or not to participate in routes based on the number of neighbours it has in addition to its speed. In dense areas, small node velocity threshold values will be utillized since this can reduce packet duplication and contention, while achieving good reachability and route stability. In sparse areas, large thresholds will be better so as to be able to reach the destination. In comparison with VON, AVON has significantly superior performance in terms of control overhead and average end-to-end delays, without degrading the ability to deliver packets (packet delivery ratio).

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