A Haptic Surgical Simulator for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy using Real-time Deformable Organs

R. Webster, R.S. Haluck, G. Zoppetti, A. Benson, J. Boyd, N. Charles, J. Reeser, and S. Sampson (USA


Surgical simulators, haptics, deformable organs, physically based modeling.


: This paper describes a laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgical training software system we have developed using the Immersion Laparoscopic Surgical WorkstationTM and the Verefi Technologies USB thirty-degree endoscopic VcameraTM hardware. The trainer is designed to train and test for many laparoscopic skills such as manipulation of the laparoscope, grasping and stretching the gallbladder to expose the cystic duct, applying a clip to the cystic duct, cutting the cystic duct, and removing the gallbladder from the abdomen. A texture motion algorithm simulates patient breathing. The gallbladder, cystic duct, and bile ducts are deformed using a physically based particle model with a mass-springs damper connectivity. We developed an implicit predictor to speed up calculations during each time step. The solution involves repeated application of Newton's 2nd Law of motion (F = ma), using the implicit solver for numerically solving the differential equations. The intent is to provide an effective method to learn the laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedure using a surgical simulator.

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