An Echo Watermarking Method using an Analysis-by-synthesis Approach

W.-C. Wu, O.T.-C. Chen, and Y.-H. Wang (Taiwan)


Echo watermarking, Analysis-by-synthesis approach,Negative echoes.


In conventional echo watermarking methods, increasing the amplitudes of the echo signals, the decay rates, with sacrificing audio quality can improve their robustness. In this work, the aim is to improve the audio quality and preserve the robustness. The proposed method using the analysis-by-synthesis approach determines the adequate decay rates for various audio segments. In addition to positive echoes, negative echoes are applied to adapt decay rates efficiently and limit the values of decay rates in a reasonable range. Simulation results show that the recovery accuracies are 100% for various audio signals in case of no attack introduced. Additionally, the most of the decay rates are zero such that the quality of these audio segments remains the same as that of the original ones. Even though the various attacks are imposed, the echo watermarking method proposed herein can effectively preserve the audio quality at the recovery accuracy similar to that of the conventional method.

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