Watermarking in Halftone Images with Cooperating Error Diffusion and Ordered Dithering

S.-C. Pei, J.-M. Guo(Taiwan), and H. Lee (USA)


halftone, ordered dithering, error diffusion


Ordered dithering and error diffusion are the two most popular processes to produce halftone results for printing industry. Ordered dithering inherently has the benefit of efficiency. On the other hand, error diffusion has high quality and reasonable complexity. In this paper, we propose a watermarking that adopts the ordered dithering to produce the referenced halftone image, then applying the Noise-Balanced Error Diffusion [1] to embed the watermark. A lower computational complexity, lower memory demand, and better embedded image quality are achieved with the proposed technique than [1]. From the experimental results, this technique can guard against the cropping and printed-and-scanned two major degradation processes in halftone images.

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