Embedding Digital Signatures in MP3s

A. Koso, A. Turi, and C. Obimbo (Canada)


Digital signature, MP3, watermarking, copyright music, illegal MP3 downloading


The growing world-wide interest in MP3 technology has resulted in the frequent illegal distribution of MP3 files. Many legal restrictions have been attempted, but to no avail. These prohibitions have been coupled with various technological approaches; however, an acceptable technique has yet to be proposed. In this paper, we present a novel approach to watermarking MP3s with a digital signature. Although similar methods have been attempted, these past solutions fall short in essential criteria. Our watermarking technique takes advantage of unused bits in the frame headers in MP3s to store watermarking data. This technique ensures that audio quality is maintained (audio detection is not possible), detection of the watermarking is difficult and the removal of watermarking is complex.

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