Computer Analysis of Urothelial Nuclei for Cancer Detection

A. Dulewicz, D. Piętka, and P. Jaszczak (Poland)


urinary bladder, carcinoma, computer image analysis.


The objective of this work is to introduce computer based analysis of Feulgen-stained urinary bladder cell nuclei to identify neoplastic urothelial nuclei. Nuclei from 20 healthy people and 36 patients with urinary bladder cancer of two grades of malignancy were analysed. The cytological smears were obtained by “bladder washing” technique. Image analysis was carried out by means of digital image processing system designed by the authors. As the first step of the procedure, features describing nuclei were selected. Then a multistage classifier was constructed to identify positive and negative cases. The results of this study yielded a 90% correct classification rate in the control group, while an 80,6% rate was obtained among the cancer patients. The sensitivity of the method was 91% and the specificity was 84%.

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