Target Level of Safety Measures in Air Transportation � Review, Validation and Recommendations

X. Lin, N. Fulton, and M. Westcott (Australia)


Target level of safety, safety/risk analysis, trend analysis


Measures of risk collectively called target level of safety (TLS) are a key concept in civil aviation safety. They have been developed over the past 40 years by many stakeholders including the International Civil Aviation Organization. Different air operational environments need different concepts of TLS. However, this has led to various TLS measures with different units (and values) being compared and misquoted in the decision-making processes. This paper provides a review of the various TLS measures with their considerations and units. It also provides validation of several key and widely used TLS measures based on worldwide civil air traffic and accident data recorded over the past 47 years. This work is significant in clarifying the use of this important air safety concept.

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