Green and Insensitive Ammunitions: A Cost-Efficiency Analysis

Abderrahmane Sokri


Green and Insensitive Ammunitions, Cost-Efficiency Analysis, Simulation


Unexploded or deflagrated energetic residues were detected in impact areas of some ranges and training areas (RTAs) of the Canadian Forces (CF). Furthermore, propellants residues were detected at several firing positions with concentrations sometimes exceeding the preliminary guidelines. Propellant residues are known to contain significant amounts of carcinogenic and toxic components, which could potentially generate health problems and threaten military personnel’s state of readiness. The corresponding costs of potential remediation and lawsuits are valued at several million dollars. Green and Insensitive Ammunitions (GIA) are being considered by the CF as a potential solution that would ease the environmental pressure on RTAs and decrease the health hazards for the users. This study uses a Cost-Efficiency Analysis (CEA) to estimate the GIA incremental economic costs. A simulation framework using a hypothetical RTA was developed to deal with the incompleteness of the needed input data. The study indicates that significant potential cost avoidance could be realized if GIA replaced current ammunitions.

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