In-Vivo Examination of Composites Produced by Plasma Nitro/Carburized of Stainless Steel Hydroxy-Apatite Particles

Nazanin Afsar Kazerooni, Mohammad Hossein Shariat, Mohammad Ebrahim Bahrololoom, Seifollah Dehghani, Taymaz Jozaghi, and Fatemeh Mahzoon


Plasma electrolytic nitro/carburizing, Hydroxy-apatite, Biocompatibility, In-vivo Pathology, Tensile test


Due to rather weak environmental performance of stainless steel 316L, a plasma electrolytic nitro/carburizing (PEN/C) process including hydroxy-apatite particles were performed on pins made of stainless steel 316L. In order to compare, three groups of pins were prepared: the first was untreated stainless steel 316L pins, the second group was stainless steel 316L pins which were nitrocarburized by electrolytic plasma process, and the third group was stainless steel 316L pins which were nitrocarburized in an electrolyte containing hydroxyapatite particles (HA). All the pins were then implanted inside tibia bone of rabbits. After six weeks the pins were removed and studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM images demonstrated morphology of surfaces of pins, before implanting in body and after removing, and a layer of tissue which was formed on the surface of the pins. Also pathological results showed that the mature bones formed instead of immature bones in the third group. Tensile tests indicated that after implantation, tensile properties of third group were enhanced.

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