Skin-Electrode Impedance Model for Typical Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation Pulses

José L. Vargas Luna, Matthias Krenn, Jorge A. Cortés Ramírez, and Winfried Mayr


Skin-Electrode Impedance, Model, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), Current-Control


A new model for the skin-electrode interface impedance is presented. This model is developed to work with typical Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation (TES) parameters and, unlike other models, is able to predict low and high charge pulses since it considers the electroporation and a charge-dependent effect. Experimental data are acquired with Current-Control (CC) and Voltage-Control (VC) stimulation pulses. The data show a predominant current-dependency for both stimulation techniques, which allows to keep a simple model. A computational simulation is run with biphasic pulses of CC and VC, getting R2-values up to 0.99. The model can be fitted for each electrode type with few experimental points, and be easily embedded in optimization algorithms to design new pulse waveforms and study of high-charges pulses of actual TES techniques.

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