Natural Gas and Electricity Consumption at the End Use Level in Nonresidential Buildings

Kenneth H. Tiedemann


Building simulation models, Energy consumption, Energy use, Energy efficiency


Electricity utilities, natural gas utilities, regulators and policy makers need accurate and comprehensive information on energy use for energy system planning, forecasting, operations and demand side management. This information is often needed at the end use level, which is difficult and expensive to obtain through end use metering. This study uses calibrated whole building energy simulations to estimate end use energy consumption for thirteen electricity and natural end uses for ten building segments. The paper’s main contribution is to show how on-site audits combined with computer simulations can produce robust estimates of end use energy consumption. Some key findings include the following. First, energy intensity varies substantially by building segment, from 188.9 kWh/sq. m/y for secondary schools to 1095.5 kWh/sq. m/y for grocery stores/ restaurants. Second, gas space heating is the largest end use and varies from 52.3 kWh/sq. m/y in stand-alone retail to in 334.0 kWh/sq. m/y in hospitals. Third, interior lighting is the second most important end use and varies from 29.3 kWh/sq. m/y in secondary schools to 240.0 kWh/sq. m/y in grocery stores/restaurants.

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