D. Morrison


  1. [1] P. Lai & J. Biggs, Who benefits from mastery learning?Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19(1), 1994, 13–23. doi:10.1006/ceps.1994.1002
  2. [2] G.H. Hillfish & P.G. Smith, Reflective thinking: The methodof education (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1961).
  3. [3] J. Barell, Teaching for thoughtfulness: Classroom strategies toenhance intellectual development (New York: Longman, 1991).
  4. [4] V.R. Ruggiero, Teaching thinking across the curriculum (NewYork: Harper & Row, 1988).
  5. [5] D.R. Garrison, Critical thinking and adult education: Aconceptual model for developing critical thinking in adultlearners, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 10(4),1991, 287–303. doi:10.1080/0260137910100403
  6. [6] R.D. Garrison, A cognitive constructivist view of distanceeducation: An analysis of teaching and learning assumptions,Distance education, 14(2), 1993, 199–210. doi:10.1080/0158791930140204
  7. [7] R. Paul, Critical thinking: How to prepare students for arapidly changing world (Sonoma, CA: Foundation for CriticalThinking, 1995).
  8. [8] D. Kember, Instructional design for meaningful learning, Instructional Science, 20(4), 1991, 289–310. doi:10.1007/BF00043255
  9. [9] D.R. Newman, B. Webb, & C. Cochrane, A content analysis method to measure critical thinking in face-to-face andcomputer supported group learning, IPCT-J—InterpersonalComputing and Technology Journal, 3(2), 1995, 56–77.
  10. [10] S. Brookfield, Developing critical thinkers: Challenging adultsto explore alternative ways of thinking and acting (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1987).
  11. [11] J. Mezirow, How critical reflection triggers transformativelearning, in J. Mezirow & Associates (Eds.), Fostering criticalreflection in adulthood (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990),1–20.
  12. [12] D.R. Garrison, T. Anderson, & W. Archer, Critical inquiry ina text-based environment: Computer conferencing in highereducation, The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2–3), 2000,1–19. doi:10.1016/S1096-7516(00)00016-6
  13. [13] L.M. Harasim (Ed.), Online education: Perspectives on a newenvironment (New York: Praeger, 1989).
  14. [14] C. Gibson Campbell, Collaborative learning in action viacomputer conferencing, Proc. 12th Annual Conf. on DistanceTeaching and Learning, Madison, WI, August 5–7, 1996, 121–125.
  15. [15] M. Bullen, Participation and critical thinking in online university distance education, Journal of Distance Education, 13(2),1998, 1–32.
  16. [16] Iowa State Department of Education, The Integrated ThinkingModel, State of Iowa Department of Education, Des Moines,IA, 1989.
  17. [17] S. Totten, T. Sills, A. Digby, & P. Russ, Cooperative learning:A guide to research (New York: Garland, 1991).
  18. [18] L. Teles, Cognitive apprenticeship on global networks, in L.M.Harasim (Ed.), Global networks: Computers and internationalcommunication (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993).
  19. [19] A.A. Gokhale, Collaborative learning and critical thinking,Journal of Technology Education, 7 (1), 1995, 22–30.
  20. [20] Q. Li, Understanding the learning process: An explorationof collaborative learning in an educational environment usingcomputer mediated communication, doctoral diss., Universityof Toronto, 2001.261
  21. [21] F. Henri, Computer conferencing and content analysis, inA. Kaye (Ed.), Collaborative learning through computer conferencing (London: Springer-Verlag, 1992), 117–136.
  22. [22] T. Kaye, Learning together apart, in T. Kaye (Ed.), Collaborative learning through computer conferencing (New York:Springer-Verlag, 1992).
  23. [23] T. Butler & D. Coleman, Models of collaboration, Collaborative Strategies LLC, Retrieved 12 September, 2005,from
  24. [24] R. Olsen & S. Kagan, About cooperative learning, in C. Kessler(Ed.), Cooperative language learning: A teacher’s resource book(Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Regents, 1992), 1–30.
  25. [25] A. Collins, J. Brown, & S. Newman, Cognitive apprenticeship:Teach the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics, in L.B.Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning and instruction: Essays inhonor of Robert Glaser (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum,1989).
  26. [26] R.D. Garrison, Computer conferencing: The post-industrialage of distance education, Open Learning, 12 (2), 1997, 3–11. doi:10.1080/0268051970120202
  27. [27] O. Peters, Distance teaching and industrial production: Acomparative interpretation in outline, in D. Sewart, K. Keegan,& B. Holmberg (Eds.), Distance education: Internationalperspectives (London: Croom Helm, 1988), 95–111.
  28. [28] A.N. Applebee, Writing and reasoning, Review of EducationalResearch, 54, 1984, 577–596. doi:10.2307/1170176
  29. [29] T. Fulwiler, Teaching with writing (Portsmouth, NH: Heineman, 1987).
  30. [30] M.A. Campos, A constructivist method for the analysis ofnetworked cognitive communication and the assessment of col-laborative learning and knowledge-building, Journal of Asynchronous Leaning Networks, 8 (4), 2004, 1–29.
  31. [31] D. Morrison, A study of holistic thinking in an agriculturalleadership development program using asynchronous computerconferencing, doctoral diss., University of Toronto, 2004.
  32. [32] R.M. Palloff & K. Pratt, Building learning communities incyberspace: Effective strategies for the online classroom (SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999).
  33. [33] R.M. Palloff & K. Pratt, Lessons from the cyberspace classroom:The realities of online teaching (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass,2001).
  34. [34] J. Belanich, R.A. Wisher, & K.L. Orvis, Using a question generation approach to improve web-based collaborative learning,19th Annual Conf. on Distance Teaching and Learning, 2003,1–6.
  35. [35] L. Harasim, Teaching and learning on-line: Issues in computer-mediated graduate courses, Canadian Journal of EducationalCommunication, 16(2), 1987, 117–135.
  36. [36] M. Lipman, Thinking in education (Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1991).

Important Links:

Go Back