Groundwater Resources Evaluation from Remote Sensing: Part 2. Spatio-Temporal Recharge and Water Balances

B.F. Alemaw, T.R. Chaoka, and B. Munyai (Botswana)


Remote sensing, S-SEBI algorithm, spatial ET Modeling, ILWIS script, Landsat TM, and MODIS


This paper is aimed at modeling of the spatial and temporal variation of recharge over selected aquifers in the Notwane catchment of SE Botswana. The study involved the estimation of recharge first by applying Energy balance-based ET from remote sensing, which considers the use of Landsat TM and MODIS imagery, and calculation of spatially distributed evapotranspiration from energy balances. MODIS Terra was used to derive land surface temperature and reflectance data. Evapotranspiration (ET) limits the available water that recharges the groundwater reservoirs or aquifer systems. As ET plays a major role in accounting of the surface and subsurface water balances, and subsequently groundwater reserve, the paper is designed to be a follow up and an integral component of the previous paper, part 1, that dealt with the identification of ground potential zones from remote sensing and ground based information based on key groundwater potential zone indicators and optimized image classifications. By further enhancing the results of this research, a water balance model was developed with features that reflect on the groundwater recharge and potential, as well as its implications to water resources management in the subcatchment are discussed with highlights of recommendations for stimulating and strengthening further research.

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