Sustainable Approaches to Decentralized Wastewater Systems with Emphasis on Developing Countries in Semi-Arid Regions

R. Hranova (Botswana)


Wastewater systems, wastewater reuse, on-site sanitation;


The paper discusses some aspects of sustainable applications of decentralized wastewater systems, where a safe and reliable effluent reuse is the major objective of the project. Sustainability is discussed in terms of environmental, technical, economic and social dimensions. More emphasis is given on technical sustainability, which defines the requirements for a sound design/application in terms of satisfying quantitative and qualitative parameters. A method for assessment of different wastewater treatment technologies is suggested, in order to support the best choice, based on defined technical, economic and environmental criteria.

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